This page describes a JSON-based serialization format to write a whole tournament to a file.

Basic format

All of the data types in the schema for an object are either native JSON data types or references to other object types.

Indeed, native JSON data types serialize as you would expect in JSON; object types defined here serialize as JSON objects with a few extra fields.

The top level of the JSON file must be an object with keys for version (the current version is 1.3), and objects, an array of objects; among these objects, there should be exactly one object of type Tournament and any number of other objects.

The file’s extension should be .qbj and its MIME type should be application/vnd.quizbowl.qbj+json.

Objects

Every object at the top level of the JSON file must include a type field with its type as a string. The object may include an id field with a unique identifier as a string. If the object is referenced by a reference elsewhere in the file, it must include an id field, and the contents of the field must be unique among objects of the same type.

Objects defined within other objects may include a type field and an id field.

The same id must not be defined more than once in a file.

References

Wherever an object includes another object as a field, it may substitute a “reference object” for the definition if the other object is defined with an id elsewhere in the file. Likewise, if an object includes an array of other objects, it may substitute an array of reference objects.

A reference object has one key called $ref with a value of the id of the object to which it points, so if you have an object defined in one place:

{
  "id": "team_1",
  "type": "Team",
  "name": "Team 1",
  "players": [...]
}

you can reference it elsewhere in the file with a reference object:

{ "$ref": "team_1" }

Dangling references

In the interest of incremental data transfer, it is not considered an data format error to have a reference from an object to another object that isn’t defined in the file. If the receiving end of the data transfer parses the file and cannot resolve the references, it should fail with an application-level error.

Minimal example

That’s a lot of really specific-sounding technical jargon. But the whole format plays out pretty straightforwardly in practice. Here’s an example of a very small tournament, also available for download:

{
  "version": "1.3",
  "objects": [
    {
      "id": "school_lake_worth",
      "type": "Registration",
      "name": "Lake Worth",
      "teams": [
        {
          "id": "team_887039",
          "name": "Lake Worth A",
          "players": [
            {
              "id": "player_634094",
              "name": "Raquel Kuvalis",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_443048",
              "name": "Selina Koch",
              "year": 12
            },
            {
              "id": "player_833136",
              "name": "Daryl Lind",
              "year": 12
            },
            {
              "id": "player_676301",
              "name": "Keira Anderson",
              "year": 12
            },
            {
              "id": "player_578732",
              "name": "Stephania Davis",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_354730",
              "name": "Jeff Spinka",
              "year": 9
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "id": "school_lomax",
      "type": "Registration",
      "name": "Lomax",
      "teams": [
        {
          "id": "team_416211",
          "name": "Lomax A",
          "players": [
            {
              "id": "player_182776",
              "name": "Clarabelle Fadel",
              "year": 9
            },
            {
              "id": "player_8995",
              "name": "Flo Ondricka",
              "year": 12
            },
            {
              "id": "player_400431",
              "name": "Earline Connelly",
              "year": 10
            },
            {
              "id": "player_969981",
              "name": "Morgan Torp",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_556637",
              "name": "Melyssa Nikolaus",
              "year": 9
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "id": "team_985424",
          "name": "Lomax B",
          "players": [
            {
              "id": "player_289629",
              "name": "Charlotte Berge",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_644465",
              "name": "Chelsey Cartwright",
              "year": 10
            },
            {
              "id": "player_999928",
              "name": "Laurie Thiel",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_571162",
              "name": "Rene Abernathy",
              "year": 10
            },
            {
              "id": "player_179810",
              "name": "Wilburn McGlynn",
              "year": 12
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "id": "team_190740",
          "name": "Lomax C",
          "players": [
            {
              "id": "player_791350",
              "name": "Zechariah Yundt",
              "year": 12
            },
            {
              "id": "player_630847",
              "name": "Angelina Denesik",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_774971",
              "name": "Emie Goodwin",
              "year": 9
            },
            {
              "id": "player_902051",
              "name": "Macie Carter",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_14538",
              "name": "Tyreek Abbott",
              "year": 11
            },
            {
              "id": "player_393738",
              "name": "Asha Hessel",
              "year": 9
            },
            {
              "id": "player_479053",
              "name": "Candelario Ortiz",
              "year": 10
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "id": "game_1_lake_worth_a_lomax_b",
      "type": "Match",
      "tossups_read": 21,
      "overtime_tossups_read": 0,
      "location": "Room 1",
      "serial": "1-1",
      "moderator": "Q. Q*bert Hentzel",
      "scorekeeper": "Foley, which is an app",
      "match_teams": [
        {
          "team": {
            "$ref": "team_887039"
          },
          "points": 335,
          "match_players": [
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_833136"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 11,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 1
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 1
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_578732"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 11,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 1
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_676301"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 21,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 4
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_634094"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 21,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 3
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_354730"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 0,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_443048"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 20,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 3
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 1
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            }
          ],
          "lineups": [
            {
              "first_question": 1,
              "reason": "initial",
              "players": [
                {
                  "$ref": "player_634094"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_443048"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_833136"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_676301"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "first_question": 11,
              "reason": "halftime",
              "players": [
                {
                  "$ref": "player_634094"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_443048"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_676301"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_578732"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "first_question": 21,
              "reason": "own_timeout",
              "players": [
                {
                  "$ref": "player_833136"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_578732"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_676301"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_634094"
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "team": {
            "$ref": "team_985424"
          },
          "points": 125,
          "match_players": [
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_179810"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 11,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 1
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_999928"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 21,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 2
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_644465"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 21,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 2
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 2
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_289629"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 11,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 1
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 2
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_571162"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 20,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 1
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 0
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            }
          ],
          "lineups": [
            {
              "first_question": 1,
              "reason": "initial",
              "players": [
                {
                  "$ref": "player_289629"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_644465"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_999928"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_571162"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "first_question": 11,
              "reason": "halftime",
              "players": [
                {
                  "$ref": "player_179810"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_644465"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_571162"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_999928"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "first_question": 21,
              "reason": "other_timeout",
              "players": [
                {
                  "$ref": "player_179810"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_999928"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_644465"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "player_289629"
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        }
      ],
      "match_questions": [
        {
          "question_number": 1,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_676301"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 2,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_644465"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 3,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_833136"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 4,
          "bonus_points": 30,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_676301"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 5,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_289629"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": -5
              }
            },
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_443048"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 6,
          "bonus_points": 0,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_833136"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": -5
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 7,
          "bonus_points": 20,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_289629"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": -5
              }
            },
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_443048"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 15
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 8,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_289629"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 15
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 9,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_999928"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 10,
          "bonus_points": 20,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_443048"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 11,
          "bonus_points": 30,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_179810"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 12,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_634094"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 13,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_999928"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 14,
          "bonus_points": 0,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_578732"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": -5
              }
            },
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_571162"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 15,
          "bonus_points": 0,
          "buzzes": []
        },
        {
          "question_number": 16,
          "bonus_points": 0,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_644465"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 17,
          "bonus_points": 30,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_644465"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": -5
              }
            },
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_634094"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 18,
          "bonus_points": 20,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_634094"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 19,
          "bonus_points": 20,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_443048"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 20,
          "bonus_points": 30,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_676301"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 21,
          "bonus_points": 10,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_985424"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_644465"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": -5
              }
            },
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_887039"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_676301"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "id": "game_1_lomax_a_lomax_c",
      "type": "Match",
      "tossups_read": 24,
      "overtime_tossups_read": 0,
      "location": "Room 0",
      "serial": "1-2",
      "moderator": "Q. Q*bert Hentzel",
      "scorekeeper": "Foley, which is an app",
      "match_teams": [
        {
          "team": {
            "$ref": "team_416211"
          },
          "points": 305,
          "match_players": [
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_400431"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 24,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 2
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 2
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_182776"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 22,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 3
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 1
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_969981"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 24,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 10
                  },
                  "number": 4
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": 15
                  },
                  "number": 1
                },
                {
                  "answer_type": {
                    "value": -5
                  },
                  "number": 0
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_556637"
              },
              "tossups_heard": 14,
              "answer_counts": [
                {
                  "answer_type": {
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              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        },
        {
          "question_number": 23,
          "bonus_points": 30,
          "buzzes": [
            {
              "team": {
                "$ref": "team_416211"
              },
              "player": {
                "$ref": "player_969981"
              },
              "result": {
                "value": 10
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "name": "Test Tournament",
      "type": "Tournament",
      "phases": [
        {
          "name": "All Matches",
          "rounds": [
            {
              "name": "Round 1",
              "matches": [
                {
                  "$ref": "game_1_lake_worth_a_lomax_b"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "game_1_lomax_a_lomax_c"
                }
              ]
            },
            {
              "name": "Round 2",
              "matches": [
                {
                  "$ref": "game_2_lomax_b_lake_worth_a"
                },
                {
                  "$ref": "game_2_lomax_c_lomax_a"
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        }
      ],
      "registrations": [
        {
          "$ref": "school_lake_worth"
        },
        {
          "$ref": "school_lomax"
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

Larger example

The complete data file for the 2014 HSNCT is 7 MB of JSON, or about 325 KB zipped.